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VA vital status files provided information on the primary study outcome, the occurrence of death, and the date of death.The follow-up period to the study was January 2011–December 2015 (or the date of meeting epilepsy criteria for those who first met epilepsy criteria in 2011), or until the date of death.Because epilepsy typically results in persons being excluded from military service, epilepsy usually develops in veterans during or after military service, accounting for the lower age-adjusted prevalence of epilepsy in IAV (2,3).However, as with civilians with epilepsy (4,7), IAV with epilepsy had significantly higher mortality, even after controlling for demographic characteristics and comorbidity.Consistent with other studies, excess mortality in veterans with epilepsy might be associated with both epilepsy (e.g., poorly controlled seizures, sudden unexpected death in epilepsy) and other individual or environmental factors (e.g., depression, high risk behaviors, and social isolation).The findings in this report are subject to several limitations.The unadjusted Kaplan-Meier estimator and proportional hazards regression models adjusted for demographic characteristics and comorbid conditions were used to calculate hazard ratios.

The unadjusted Kaplan-Meier estimator and adjusted proportional hazards regression models tested the hypothesis that excess mortality is associated with epilepsy.The study data did not include information on the cause of death, the persistence of seizures, or the diagnostic type of seizures; however, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and cerebrovascular disease were more prevalent in IAV with epilepsy, putting them at higher risk for mortality.Even after controlling for these comorbidities, epilepsy was significantly associated with mortality.IAV who did not meet the epilepsy study criteria formed the no epilepsy group.Baseline demographic data (i.e., age, sex, race/ethnicity, poverty) and comorbidities were compiled from all available data for IAV with epilepsy before meeting epilepsy criteria, and for IAV without epilepsy through 2010.

The unadjusted Kaplan-Meier estimator and adjusted proportional hazards regression models tested the hypothesis that excess mortality is associated with epilepsy.

The study data did not include information on the cause of death, the persistence of seizures, or the diagnostic type of seizures; however, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and cerebrovascular disease were more prevalent in IAV with epilepsy, putting them at higher risk for mortality.

Even after controlling for these comorbidities, epilepsy was significantly associated with mortality.

IAV who did not meet the epilepsy study criteria formed the no epilepsy group.

Baseline demographic data (i.e., age, sex, race/ethnicity, poverty) and comorbidities were compiled from all available data for IAV with epilepsy before meeting epilepsy criteria, and for IAV without epilepsy through 2010.

VA national health system data from inpatient, outpatient, and pharmacy records (2002–2011) identified IAV with and without epilepsy, and provided demographic characteristics and comorbidity data.